Gingival stem cells can be used in tissue regeneration

0
1380
Researchers have discovered that gingivae, an easily accessible tissue, are an attractive source for stem cells.
Researchers have discovered that gingivae, an easily accessible tissue, are an attractive source for stem cells.

The International and American Associations for Dental (IADR/AADR) has published a paper suggesting gingival stem cells can be used in tissue regeneration. While researchers have known for some time that gums contained stem cells, until now they were uncertain from where those cells were derived. This new research answers that question for them.

“The tooth and surrounding tissues are a rich source of stem cells, and this study demonstrates that gingivae contain highly proliferative stem cells from two different embryonic origins and that these cells exhibit distinct behaviors,” said Associate Editor Jacques Nör of the IADR/AADR Journal of Dental Research. “These results suggest that gingivae, an easily accessible tissue, are an attractive source for stem cells that can be used in tissue regeneration.”

Gingivae represent a unique soft tissue that serves as a biological barrier to cover the oral cavity side of the maxilla and mandible. Recently, the gingivae were identified as containing mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs). However, it is unknown whether the GMSCs are derived from cranial neural crest cells (CNCC) or the mesoderm.

In this paper titled “Gingivae Contain Neural-crest- and Mesoderm-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells”, lead author Songtao Shi, Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, Ostrow School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA and his team of researchers demonstrated that around 90 percent of GMSCs are derived from CNCC and 10 percent from the mesoderm. In comparison with mesoderm MSCs (M-GMSCs), CNCC-derived GMSCs (N-GMSCs) show an elevated capacity to differentiate into neural cells and chondrocytes as well as to modulate immune cells. When transplanted into mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis, N-GMSCs showed superior effects in ameliorating inflammatory-related disease phenotype in comparison with the M-GMSC treatment group.

Further research is required to understand the interaction between the neural crest cell derived and mesoderm derived gingivae mesenchymal stem cells (N-GMSCs and M-GMSCs) in terms of their functional roles in gingival immune defense and wound healing.

Visit this page to read the JDR manuscript titled “Gingivae Contain Neural-crest- and Mesoderm-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells”.

Previous articleRedfern All Blacks juniors benefit from mouth guards
Next articleTax deduction cap to hit postgrad numbers

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here